On this dayFeb 21, 1956
The Road to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, began boycotting city buses in December 1955 to protest the poor treatment Black passengers received on the segregated vehicles. On February 21, 1956, a Montgomery grand jury indicted 115 leaders of the boycott, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rev. Ralph Abernathy. The indictments, later reduced to a total of eighty-nine, accused protest organizers of violating a 1921 state statute forbidding boycotts without "just cause."
Grand jurors repudiated anti-segregation efforts in the grand jury report that accompanied the indictment. "In this state we are committed to segregation by custom and law; we intend to maintain it," the grand jury wrote. "The settlement of differences over school attendance, public transportation and other facilities must be made within those laws which reflect our way of life."
As the indicted boycott leaders surrendered themselves into custody at the police station, hundreds of African American supporters gathered outside in a show of support for their efforts to challenge racial discrimination and fight segregation in Alabama.
Of those indicted, only Dr. King was prosecuted. Despite defense evidence showing that the boycott was peaceful and that discriminatory bus service inflicted harm on the African American community, Dr. King was quickly convicted, fined $1,000, and given a suspended jail sentence of one year of hard labor.
The indictment and Dr. King's conviction strengthened local African Americans' resolve to fight segregation and attracted national attention to the growing civil rights movement.